Soil is a natural body consisting of layers that are primarily composed of minerals, mixed with at least some organic matter, which differ from their parent materials in their texture, structure, consistency, color, chemical, biological and other characteristics. It is the unconsolidated or loose covering of fine rock particles that covers the surface of the earth. Soil is the end product of the influence of the climate, relief (slope), organisms, parent materials (original minerals), and time. Soil is the most important natural resource that needs to be secured for sustainable agriculture and food security. However, it continues to be lost by erosion and polluted by various chemicals that threaten future crop and animal production. The pressure on soil is urgent and growing. Hence, it creates significant scientific challenges in soil and plant science research, education and agricultural extension that is focused on better soil management practices.
Soil science is the study of soil as a natural resource on the surface of the earth including soil formation, classification and mapping; physical, chemical, biological, and fertility properties of soils; and these properties in relation to the use and management of soils.
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